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Environmental Resources for Dairy


Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook—Dairy Industry
The dairy industry involves processing raw milk into products such as consumer milk, butter, cheese, yogurt, condensed milk, dried milk (milk powder), and ice cream, using processes such as chilling, pasteurization, and homogenization. Typical by-products include buttermilk, whey, and their derivatives.

Environmental, Health, and Safety Guidelines for Dairy Processing
The Environmental, Health, and Safety (EHS) Guidelines are technical reference documents with general and industry specific examples of Good International Industry Practice (GIIP). When one or more members of the World Bank Group are involved in a project, these EHS Guidelines are applied as required by their respective policies and standards. These industry sector EHS guidelines are designed to be used together with the General EHS Guidelines document, which provides guidance to users on common EHS issues potentially applicable to all industry sectors. For complex projects, use of multiple industry-sector guidelines may be necessary.

Multimedia Environmental Compliance Guide for Food Processors
As food processors, you are regulated by a variety of federal laws administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that impact human activities and the environment. Noncompliance with these regulations can damage human health and the environment, and result in significant financial liabilities for clean up costs or fines. Environmental compliance may be difficult for some food processors that do not have the time, staff, or other resources necessary to determine their responsibilities. Also, environmental regulations and laws can be complicated, and information on environmental compliance may be difficult to locate. Adding to these complexities, you must be aware of and meet stringent food safety requirements. To assist you, EPA, with special assistance from the American Frozen Food Institute (AFFI), the American Meat Institute (AMI), the National Food Processors Association (NFPA) and the Food Industry Environmental Council (FIEC), has developed this guide to address these issues.



Dairy Processing Methods to Reduce Water Use and Liquid Waste Load
As costs for water and treatment of liquid wastes have continued to increase, dairy processors and producers must be effective managers. They must balance the diverse issues of paying for these higher costs, being environmentally responsible, and conducting a viable business. Doing “the right thing” may mean carefully evaluating options that will satisfy environmental concerns and at the same time keep a plant operating. While a plant closing can have a devastating effect on the community, poor waste management of a facility also can have a detrimental effect on the quality of life in the area, be a burden to the waste water treatment system, and threaten the local environment.

Cut Waste to Reduce Surcharges for Your Dairy
Did you know that your dairy plant may be producing a waste load of 800,000 pounds of BOD5 per year - equivalent to the load from a city of 13,000 people? Wastewater from most dairy plants is discharged to publicly owned treatment works (POTWs), where the majority of the pollutants are removed before the water is discharged to the environment. Treating the water costs money, and most treatment works charge according to the volume of sewage treated. In addition, they commonly charge extra (apply a surcharge) if the waste load exceeds certain specified levels because it costs more to treat water that contains more pollutants.

Reclamation of Dairy Wastewater
Urban encroachment onto traditional dairy lands, increased dependence on
chemical fertilizers for crop and vegetable production, and continued operation of large dairies has created a tremendous environmental impact on ground water quality. A report by the Regional Water Quality Control Board, Santa Ana Region (1989) attributed 88% of the agricultural waste load in the region die to dairies.
Consequently, the University of California Cooperative Extension Office at San Bernardino and Riverside put together a project that would attempt to partially remove some of the pollutants in dairy wastewater.

Management of Dairy Wastewater
A manure management system for a modern dairy should be capable of controlling solid or liquid manure and wastewater from milkrooms and parlors, holding areas, open paved feeding areas, freestall barns, heifer and calf barns, and dirt exercise and lounging areas. Unusually wet winters or springs emphasize the point that milking center wastewater and lot rainfall runoff should be handled and controlled separately from the scraped manure. It is important that producers have a selection of options to accommodate varying herd sizes, management and production strategies, farm objectives, locations and climatic factors.

Dairy Wastewater Generation and Characteristics
Wastewater Generation—Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs) have been widely recognized as a significant cause of surface water impairment, air pollution, and groundwater contamination. Among many AFOs, dairy farms are the largest wastewater generators, contributing 48% of animal wastewater according EPA and USDA surveys.


Guide to Energy Efficiency Opportunities in the Dairy Processing Industry
The National Dairy Council of Canada (NDCC) engaged Wardrop Engineering Inc. to
prepare a concise guide on energy conservation and cost savings opportunities in the dairy processing industry. The purpose of this guide is to assist in the identification of energy efficiency improvements within dairy processing plants, and also to assist in the development and achievement of voluntary sector energy efficiency targets, under the auspices of the Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation (CIPEC). The primary audience for this guide is staff and managers directly involved in dairy plant operations.


Food Processing Environmental Assistance Center
Purdue University, Food Science Building, 745 Agriculture Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47906
Phone: 765-494-7997 • FAX: 765-494-7953

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